Do questionnaire formats impact results?

The subject is explored in one of OPP’s latest research papers

The research is titled "Personality without borders - Do questionnaire languages and smart phones bias results?"

Different media and languagesGlobalisation and the massive popularity of smart phones have put greater demand upon psychologists and test-providers to make personality assessments available in multiple languages and on multiple platforms. But it is not a simple case of translation and software development: there are linguistic, cultural and psychological reasons why results might differ across languages and media.

Similarly, it is risky to assume that results from an app version of a personality instrument will be equivalent to those drawn from a website of the same questionnaire.

This research paper investigates, and is free to download from